New educational policy of Russia and what is there difference ?
Care centers, kindergartens, play centers and nursery schools were established for children up to eight years of age. They were all optional. Parents could choose any of them at their own pace.
Seven-year-old schooling was set up for all children aged eight to 15 years. 10-year schooling was mandatory in towns and villages before the war. Compulsory education ended at the age of 15. Industrial schools consisted of factory and commercial schools. There were vocational schools and academies for vocational education. Universities and specialized institutions were established for higher education. Clubs, auxiliary courses, movies and theaters were built for adult education.
In 1913, the number of children in primary and secondary schools was 78 million, which in 1940 increased to 30 million. In the same period, the number of technical schools increased from 35 thousand 8 hundred to 9 lakh 51 thousand 9 hundred. The number of universities increased from 71 to 718 while the number of students in the university increased from 1 lakh 12 thousand to 6 lakh 50 thousand every year.
The Soviet government introduces an optional pre-school education system for children under the age of 8. Previously, there were only 550 childcare centers. The number of these centers increased to 6 million in 1932 and 3 million in 1937, which continued to grow. These centers were built with factories, collective farms, flats and workplaces. Factories trade unions, public committees, parents, management committees and health commissioners assisted in running these centers.
Care centers were created with workplaces because mothers could be there in less time to breastfeed infants. “The rooms at these centers are very large, spacious, bright and spacious,” explains the center-run Miss Beatrice King. Each room has an adjoining terrace where children can sleep in the summer and winter. There is a large kitchen where the cook prepares the collective meal. They also have laundry, gardens and playgrounds. For every group of 12 to 15 children, a trained person is employed, and an unskilled assistant is there to help. ”
These centers were a very powerful institution for parent training. Very young children’s schools also served as care centers where admission was on a voluntary basis. The number of children coming to these centers increased from 8 million in the year 1940 to 35 million. There was co-operation between parents and teachers through monthly meetings of the staff council and the parent council.
Parents were encouraged to attend schools and homes of teachers’ children. The children’s curriculum included a number of age-based lessons, mostly playing, eating and sleeping. Formal education begins at the age of 6 years. All major railway stations also had special children’s rooms and playgrounds.
Through care centers and nursery schools, children are not only cared for but also taught hygiene principles. The doctor was part of every school staff. Every activity, including sports, is determined to enhance social values, self-reliance and sense of responsibility. For example, children had a colorful brick toy, which had a certain weight and size, making it difficult for a single child to carry bricks from one place to another. Children had to request help from another child to play with these bricks.
A system was created for mothers of young children to go to work and participate in social activities so that real practical and ideological equilibrium could be established between women and men while staying locked up at home. If parents wanted, they could learn better ways to raise children individually from care centers and schools.
Primary and Secondary School
Under the Soviet planned economy, the education sector has experienced tremendous growth. In primary and secondary schools, the number of children in 1913 was 78 million, which increased to 4 million in 1942. Compulsory education was arranged in all Soviet Union for 8 to 15 years. Now it can be said that every village has its own school. In the second 5-year project, 20 thousand new schools were constructed and then in the third 5-year project another 20,000 schools were constructed, out of which 16 thousand were built in rural areas and 4,000 towns.
The more backward sections of the Soviet Union were given extra support from the government so that they could harmonize with the whole country. The ultimate goal was to develop a ten-year education system for all children. In order to achieve this goal, the third 5-year plan has required compulsory education in cities up to the age of 18. The project was very successful and the number of children in ten-year education schools increased by a year.
The global situation in September 1940 made it necessary to stop the series. Therefore, education was mandated in the towns from 8 to 15 years of age, as was the case in the rest of the country. Ten years of education have been made voluntary in this regard (meaning anyone can read). A short order was issued, which started training young people in factories and in business schools.