The Historical background of the education in Russia
Prior to the establishment of the Soviet government in Russia, there was no federal system of education. Millions of children did not go to school. The majority of the peasant population was backward, illiterate, and victimized. The situation for the minorities was worse. The reason for this was the policy of the tsarist government before the revolution that the culture of the nationalities was destroyed. For example, Ukraine and Georgia were forbidden to use their language in newspapers, books and in the courts. Those who went to school in these minority nations also had to study in Russian.
The government’s attitude toward education shows that Shisakou, who was the Minister for Information in the Czar Government, shows that knowledge is useful only when it is consumed in a food-based manner, on a limited scale, like salt. Educating the vast majority of people does more harm than good. Another prominent representative of the same government said that education should be proportionate to the well-being of the educated. The schools and colleges that existed were meant for the bourgeoisie children. Undue hardship and sanctions eliminated all cultural values from these educational institutions.
Things were so bad that the rate of suicide among children was increasing rapidly. In her book ‘Youth of Russia’, Habs Peel writes that it is very worrying that the Ministry of Communications has formed a commission to investigate the causes of suicide in children. It is estimated that 73% of the adult population was illiterate. While the literacy rate among minorities was less than 5%. The rate was 2 percent in Kazakhstan, 1 percent in Uzbekistan and 5 percent in Tajikistan.
Of the 175 nationalities in Russia, 124 did not have their own script. In this catastrophic situation, after the revolution of 1917, the Soviet educational system could not artificially accelerate development. This situation worsened after the worst famine of 1921. Famine and war largely left the young generation homeless, orphaned, abandoned and deprived. These young men became victims of bullying, lawlessness and crime, and terrorized the dimensions of the country. Living in warehouses and dirty places, the teen suffered a number of deadly mental and physical ailments. Such children were in dire need of moral and educational encouragement.
It took many years of constructive effort to solve such deep and serious problems. The resources available for the rapid promotion of education were very limited. Russia had a severe shortage of buildings, books, teachers and other necessary equipment. For many years, dual shifts were required in densely populated areas, especially in Moscow. Ignorance and superstition were desperately needed. The crushed ancient tribes living in remote areas were fiercely opposed to the teachers.
After experimenting with different methods of education, the Soviet Union organized a systematic system of education. Of great importance was the importance of making everything related to education a part of real life? Not only should the books be read, but to the extent possible, the lesson is to be integrated with practical activity. Theaters, museums and leisure facilities adjacent to factories and farms.
Cinemas were organized in each school so that the film could be used to teach and teach. Through the friendly relationships with factory and collective farms, the link between school life and social life was established. Sir Bernard Paris writes in his book ‘MS Penguin’ on Russia that an important component of Soviet education was that every worker should come to work, fully understandable. They should not be limited to just one. He must also learn during the game to achieve this goal.
The school curriculum included studies on nature, art, music, physical and social sciences. According to a September 1940 order, it was mandatory for every student to learn a foreign language such as English, German or French after the age of 12